Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via breastfeeding is responsible for nearly half of new infections of children with HIV. Although innate lymphoid cells (ILC) and natural killer (NK) cells are found throughout the oral mucosae, the effects of HIV/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in these tissues are largely unknown. To better understand the mechanics of postnatal transmission, we performed a comprehensive study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/SHIV-infected infant rhesus macaques (RM) and tracked changes in frequency, trafficking, and function of group 3 ILC (ILC3) and NK cells using polychromatic flow cytometry and cell stimulation assays in colon, tonsil, and oral lymph node samples. Infection led to a 3-fold depletion of ILC3 in the colon and an increase in the levels of NK cells in tonsils and oral lymph nodes. ILC3 and NK cells exhibited alterations in their trafficking repertoires as a result of infection, with increased expression of CD103 in colon NK cells and curtailment of CXCR3, and a significant decrease in α4β7 expression in colon ILC3. SPICE analyses revealed that ILC3 and NK cells displayed distinct functional profiles by tissue in naive samples. Infection perturbed these profiles, with a nearly total loss of interleukin-22 (IL-22) production in the tonsil and colon; an increase in the levels of CD107a, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from ILC3; and an increase in the levels of CD107a, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1β), and TNF-α from NK cells. Collectively, these data reveal that lentivirus infection alters the frequencies, receptor repertoires, and functions of innate cells in the oral and gut mucosa of infants. Further study will be required to delineate the full extent of the effect that these changes have on oral and gut homeostasis, SHIV/SIV pathogenesis, and oral opportunistic disease.IMPORTANCE Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child accounts for many of the new cases seen worldwide. There is currently no vaccine to mitigate this transmission, and there has been limited research on the effects that lentiviral infection has on the innate immune system in oral tissues of infected children. To fill this knowledge gap, our laboratory studied infant rhesus macaques to evaluate how acute SIV/SHIV infections impacted ILC3 and NK cells, which are immune cells critical for mucosal homeostasis and antimicrobial defense. Our data revealed that SIV/SHIV infection led to a depletion of ILC3 and an increase of NK cells and to a functional shift from a homeostatic to a multifunctional proinflammatory state. Taking the results together, we describe how lentiviral infection perturbs the oral and gastrointestinal mucosae of infant macaques through alterations of resident innate immune cells giving rise to chronic inflammation and potentially exacerbating morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV.